Geographic features are characteristic features of the Earth, whether natural or artificial. Natural geographical features are made of ecosystems and landforms. For instance, physical environmental factors or terrain types are natural geographic features. On the other hand, other engineered forms or human settlements are referred to as artificial geographical features.
Types of Artificial Geographical Features
Artificial geographic features include bridges, highways, railroads, airports, dams, buildings, and reservoirs. They are part of the anthroposphere because they are geographic features made by man.
Planet Earth is replete with diverse physical features ranging from deserts and oceans to mountains and plains.
First, let’s examine the tallest geographical features of the Earth: Mountains. A mountain is a landform that grows conspicuously above its surroundings, typically having a relatively confined summit area with steep slopes. It is quite rare for mountains to exist individually; in many cases, they occur in ranges or elongated chains. For instance, Mount Everest, the tallest mountain in the world, is one of the mountains in the Himalayan Mountain chain. Mountains which make up about 20% of Earth’s landmass exist on all 7 continents.
At the base of some mountains, there are a series of foothills or “piedmont”. They are gradual rises in height and are a transition between mountains and plains. Away from the mountains, there are separate hills which exist on their own. Hills, just like mountains, are raised areas of the earth’s surface, however, they are less steep and not as high as mountains. U.S. Geological Survey says that there is no official disparity between mountains and hills. The United States and the United Kingdom used to describe hills as summits below 1,000 feet. However, in the mid-twentieth century, both countries discarded the definition.
Another geographical feature is the plateau. It is an area of highland that is significantly raised above the surrounding area.
There are 2 major types of plateau: Volcanic plateaus and dissected plateaus. A dissected plateau is formed due to upward motion in the Earth’s crust as a result of gradual collision of tectonic plates. This gives rise to a volcanic plateau being formed from many little volcanic eruptions that overtime accumulate slowly. Even though plateaus are higher than the surrounding terrain, they are different from mountain ranges as they are flat.
The mesa is another flat-topped elevation. It is an isolated, flat-topped hill or ridge which is bounded by steep escarpments from all sides and distinctly erects above a surrounding plain. Mesa consists of soft flat-lying sedimentary rocks insulated by durable layers of hard rock. These durable layers behave like a caprock which forms the flat summit.
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Valleys lie in between some of the elevated geographical features. A valley is a stretched depression of the surface of the earth, popularly formed by rivers and occur between ranges of mountains and hills or on plains. Deep valleys formed by the tectonic plate movements are known as rift valleys, while very deep and narrow valleys of similar appearance are known as gorges.
A plain is another geographical feature that can be defined as any level area of the surface of the Earth which exhibits small local relief and gentle slopes. Plains vary largely in size, with the smallest one occupying up to 10 acres.
The lake is shared by the USA, Palestine and Jordan. Badwater Basin is the deepest point in North America, at 86 m above sea level, one of the deepest points of the earth’s surface that is not covered by water or ice. The total surface area of the earth and water is more than 510 million km2 below sea level, 360 million kms2 of which are water (salty and liquid) and dry land, and the rest (29%) of the surface is dry land (rocks, stone, sand, mountains, deserts, rivers, lakes, and farmland). The Great Slaves are the five longest rivers in the world: the Nile in Africa, the Amazon in South America, the Yangtze in China, the Mississippi in the United States, the Yenisei in Siberia in Russia and by far the largest desert island with 142 million km2, followed by the Arctic in the northernmost part of the world. Sources: 3
One of the most variable geographical features known as the driest place on earth is the desert. Deserts are classified by the amount of precipitation that falls to less than 10 inches per year. Sources: 1
A river basin is the area drained by a river and its tributaries. The world’s largest river basin is the Amazon basin, which covers more than 6 million square kilometers and sends 55 million gallons of water into Atlantic at the same time. Sources: 1
Waters are important water deposits that cover the earth. The term “water” usually refers to a large accumulation of water such as ocean, sea or lake, but can also include smaller water basins such as ponds, puddles and wetlands. The difference between lakes and ponds is complicated, but by scientific definition, the deeper it is, the greater it is. Sources: 2, 8
It is located on the edge of the sea or ocean, where rivers and lakes flow a little over the land. An area with little rainfall and sparse vegetation, such as the Sahara. The area where the mouth of a river is formed by deposits brought in by the river (for example in the Ganges Delta in India). Sources: 8, 10
Tributaries – Rivers that flow into larger rivers, for example the Missouri is a tributary of the Mississippi. Mouth – An area where freshwater from a river meets saltwater from the ocean (for example, in the Amazon estuary). Sources: 10
Mesa – A large land shape with flat peaks and steep slopes, such as the Tucumcari Mountains in New Mexico. Tundra – A flat, treeless area where the ground is frozen, for example: Greenland tundra. Oasis – A desert area without water or vegetation, for example, the Siwa Oasis in Egypt. Sources: 10
Pond – A small body of water that surrounds the land, such as Walden Pond in Massachusetts. Peninsula – An area surrounded by water on three sides (for example, Italy). Sources: 10
A lagoon – Similar to a bay, a lagoon is a round saltwater bay, with some pleasant differences. As a watery geographical feature, lagoons can be very beautiful. Sources: 8
This means that the water is calm and a nice place for more fish to hang out. Surrounded by land and rocks, the bay can feel like a secret hideaway or a small place. Sources: 8
Today we will look at some of these features and see how they relate to each other and where you can find them. A geographical feature is a geographical formation or component of the planet that refers to a place, place, area, or region as shown on a map. Natural geographical features are abstract geographical features on Earth, while artificial geographical features (e.g. Sources: 1, 2
For example, continents, valleys, gorges, sand dunes and mountains are considered landscapes. In addition, waters such as oceans and lakes and water-related landscapes such as bays and peninsulas are also landscapes. An ecosystem is a natural entity of plants, animals, microorganisms and biotic factors in an area that acts as a non-living, physical or abiotic factor in the environment. Sources: 2, 4
The study of geography deals with the location of places such as cities, states and countries. Abstract geographical features include designated areas and cartographic features such as the equator. Parts of the continental United States are covered by geographical features. Sources: 2, 4, 7
The study of geography concerns the characteristics of places such as places, rivers, mountains and deserts. Geographical records show the changes in areas and landscapes that have occurred over time. In researching the geography of an area, scientists get to know the animals and plants that live there. Sources: 7
A place is a place with unmistakable characteristics that give it a sense and character that differs from other places. Students must understand how physical and human qualities give meaning to a place. You also need to understand how these characteristics vary from place to place and change over time. Sources: 0
By identifying geographical features close to participants “habitats that are associated with the integrity of the brain, we can think about how we can make targeted use of urban architecture to mitigate the typical urban impact on mental health. Sources: 6
It is rare that mountains occur naturally, and in most cases they are found in long ranges or mountain ranges. Of the total of 535 Japanese areas, only mountainous mountains reach an altitude of 3,000 m (Takahasi 2004). The monsoon regions of Japan and Asia have abundant rainfall, and about 70% of the country is mountainous, with a number of mountainous areas separating the country from the main composite dynamic energy. Sources: 1, 5
Known as Chomolungma, the mountain with its snow and ice cover reaches a height of 8,848 m. The Hengduanshan Mountains are located at the interface between the Tibet Autonomous Region and the provinces of Sichuan and Yunnan southeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where they have an average altitude of 2,000 to 6,000 meters. The Taiwanese mountains stretch through the eastern part of the island of Taiwan with an average altitude of between 3,000 and 3,500 meters. Sources: 3, 9
The Tarim Basin is located in the southern part of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and comprises the mountains Tianshan and Kunlunshan. It is China’s largest basin.
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